By Prigogine I.
Within the final a long time, Chemical Physics has attracted an ever expanding volume of curiosity. the range of difficulties, corresponding to these of chemical kinetics, molecular physics, molecular spectros-copy, delivery techniques, thermodynamics, the research of the country of subject, and the diversity of experimental equipment used, makes the good improvement of this box comprehensible. however the final result of this breadth of material has been the scattering of the correct literature in a good number of courses.
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Distributed production might rely on primary energy from renewable resources, to the extent that those could be located reasonably near the point of use. Alternatively, grid electricity, possibly used during off-peak hours, might serve as the energy source. A distributed approach offers clear advantages during a transition from the current energy infrastructure, although it might not be sustainable in a mature hydrogen economy. The advantages of distributed production during a transition are economic.
Unlike other conventional fuels hydrogen has no existing large-scale supporting infrastructure. Although hydrogen production, storage and delivery technologies are currently used commercially by the chemical and petrochemical industry, these technologies are prohibitively expensive for a widespread use in energy applications. , 2007). Hydrogen contains more energy on a mass basis than any other substance. , 2007). It is expected that the hydrogen economy will require two basic technological frameworks of hydrogen storage systems, one for stationary and another for mobile applications.
S. Kikkinides particular using residual heat) than regular low-temperature electrolysers. A typical technology is the solid oxide electrolyser cell (SOEC). In general, electrolysis is scaleable from few N m3/h to several 10,000 N m3/h, so that it can be used for decentralised on-site hydrogen production as well as for large-scale centralised hydrogen plants. Today, the efficiency of conventional electrolysers is around 40–50% (Schuckert, 2005). Other sources suggest higher efficiency values, which can be attributed to differences between working and test conditions.