By Sven Eliaeson, Lyudmila Harutyunyan, Larissa Titarenko
The break-up of the Soviet Union is a key occasion of the 20th century. The thirty ninth IIS congress in Yerevan 2009 all in favour of reasons and outcomes of this occasion and on shifts on the earth order that in its wake. This quantity is an attempt to chart those advancements in empirical and conceptual phrases. It has a spotlight at the lands of the previous Soviet Union but in addition explores pathways and contexts within the moment international at huge. The Soviet Union used to be an entire scale test in growing an alternate modernity. The implosion of this union gave upward thrust to new states looking for nationwide identification. At a time whilst a few observers heralded the top of background, there has been a rediscovery of ancient legacies and a look for new paths of improvement around the former moment international. In a few elements of this international long-repressed legacies have been rediscovered. They have been occasionally, as relating to nations in East significant Europe, outfitted round stories of parliamentary democracy and its substitute via authoritarian rule through the interwar interval. a few legacies mentioned efforts at developing statehood within the wake of the 1st international warfare, others to nationwide upheavals within the 19th century and past. In crucial Asia and plenty of elements of the Caucasus the cultural background of Islam in its varied forms gave upward thrust to new markers of id but in addition to violent contestations. In South Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan have embarked upon noticeably diverse, yet consistently contingent, paths of improvement. Analogously middle elements of the outdated union have undergone tumultuous, yet till the final yr and a part principally cold, changes. The crystallization of divergent paths of improvement within the greatest republics of that union, i.e. Russia and Ukraine, has ushered in divergent nationwide imaginations but additionally in sequence of bloody confrontations.
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Extra info for After the Soviet Empire: Legacies and Pathways
Social science is a battlefield for concept formation. The aim could be ideal types of historical scenarios or theory construction. There is no necessary rivalry between history and theory. Most theories—except a few extreme cases such as the basic law of psycho-physics—are based in history and attempts to make sense of historical experiences. Narratives aim at explanations (in terms of accounting for causes) but need theories in order to avoid an endless accumulation of ever more facts. After several years it has now become obvious that the worldwide development did not follow a single scenario of modernization or globalization.
Thus, the touchiest issue for Armenians is Nagorno-Karabach—a region that was inhabited by both Armenians and Azeri people, but belonged to Azerbaijan since 1923, by Stalin’s decision. All the efforts made by the Armenians in this enclave to gain national independence failed. After several years of bloody post-soviet clashes between two ethnic groups, the local Armenians, with outside support, established a de facto Nagorno-Karabach Republic. In his analysis of Karabach, Kasbarian applies three approaches that help him to discuss the situation as (1) a site of underdevelopment, led by Azerbaijani colonialism; (2) an “apple of discord” between rival republics/nationalities; and (3) a part of larger constraints and manipulations, connected with Moscow, whose imperial character appears in this region in many forms.
Marx could not foresee stressed computers and other modern phenomena in the financial world, but his basic thesis concerning the logic of the capitalist mode of productions has at least not been falsified. Both the two Germanys and the two Koreas clearly demonstrate the strength of capitalism. The Second World, however, were capable of providing a certain degree of social security which disappeared after the downfall of the ComÂ� munist “command” economies. Nostalgia nurtures new social movements in protest against impoverishment.