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1976). " Nuclear Safety 17(1): 68-86. Grell, G. , S. E. Peckham, R. Schmitz, S. A. McKeen, G. Frost, W. C. Skamarock, and B. Eder, 2005: Fully coupled “online“ chemistry within the WRF model, Atmos. , 39(37), 6957–6975. , 2003. Multivariate receptor modeling by N-dimensional edge detection. 65, 179-189. Holmes, N. , L. Morawska, et al. (2005). " Atmospheric Environment 39(22): 3977-3988. Holmes, N. , Morawska, L. (2006) A review of dispersion modelling and its application to the dispersion of particles: An overview of different dispersion models available.

The modeling studies by Reynolds (1973) on the Los Angeles basin formed the basis of the, the well-known Urban Air shed Model-UAM. Examples of Eulerian models are CALGRID model and ARIA Regional model or the Danish Eulerian Hemispheric Model (DEHM). Lagrangian Model approach is based on calculation of wind trajectories and on the transportation of air parcels along these trajectories. In the source oriented models the trajectories are calculated forward in time from the release of a pollutant-containing air parcel by a source (forward trajectories from a fixed source) until it reaches a receptor site.

H. M. Melillo and J. , 2006); THOR - an Integrated Air Pollution Forecasting and Scenario Management System: National Environmental Research Institute (NERI), Denmark. The outline of overall methodology of FUMAPEX and MIT interactive chemistry model is shown in Figure 6 and 7. Schematic of couplings between atmospheric model and the land model components of the MIT IGSM2 is given in Figure 8. Need of integrated models All of these models have uncertainties associated with them. Chemical transport models, such as Gaussian plume models and gridded photochemical models, begin with pollutant emissions estimates and meteorological observations and use chemical and physical principles to predict ambient pollutant concentrations.

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