By John B. Parkinson

The subject of lattice quantum spin structures is an engaging and by means of now well-established department of theoretical physics. even though, many vital questions stay to be spoke back. Their intrinsically quantum mechanical nature and the big (usually successfully endless) variety of spins in macroscopic fabrics frequently results in unforeseen or counter-intuitive effects and insights. Spin structures should not purely the elemental types for a complete host of magnetic fabrics yet also they are very important as prototypical types of quantum structures. Low dimensional structures (as handled during this primer), in second and particularly 1D, were rather fruitful simply because their simplicity has enabled precise strategies to be made up our minds in lots of instances. those particular options comprise many hugely nontrivial positive aspects. This ebook was once encouraged through a suite of lectures on quantum spin structures and it's set at a degree of useful aspect that's lacking in different textbooks within the zone. it is going to advisor the reader during the foundations of the sphere. particularly, the ideas of the Heisenberg and XY types at 0 temperature utilizing the Bethe Ansatz and the Jordan-Wigner transformation are lined in a few element. using approximate tools, either theoretical and numerical, to take on extra complicated themes is taken into account. the ultimate bankruptcy describes a few very contemporary functions of approximate equipment so that it will exhibit the various instructions within which the research of those structures is presently developing.

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**Extra info for An Introduction to Quantum Spin Systems**

**Sample text**

N − 1} The first of these has λ1 = 0 and it can be shown that this gives a state in which ST = 1 with STZ = 0, while the second choice gives a state with ST = 0 and STZ = 0. The second of these is the correct one since the first is degenerate with other states with ST = 1 and STZ = ±1 which lie higher in energy. Now because the λi are uniformly spaced, we can introduce a new variable xi = λi 2i − 1 = , N N which becomes a continuous variable in the limit N → ∞, running from 0 to 1. e. xi ≡ λi −→ x N N →∞ ki −→ k(x) N →∞ 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.

Phys. Rev. : Prog. Theor. Phys. : Phys. Rev. Lett. : Europhys. Lett. 9, 815–820 (1989) 46 47 Chapter 5 Antiferromagnetic Spin Waves Abstract The ground state of the antiferromagnetic spin-1/2 linear chain is a made up of a linear combination of basis states with exactly half (N /2) the spins reversed. The elementary excitations from the ground state have N /2 ± 1 spins reversed. To calculate the energies of these states, des Cloiseaux and Pearson used a modified version of the same method that Hulthén had used for the ground state energy.

E. in the same direction. This can be achieved for every pair simultaneously if all the spins point in the same direction: ... ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ↑ ... which is clearly a ferromagnetic arrangement. In this case the energy is E = N J S 2 = 14 N J which is negative. If J > 0 the lowest energy of a pair is when they are antiparallel. Provided N is even this can be achieved for all pairs on the chain by alternating: ··· ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ↑ ↓ ··· N −1 N 1 2 3 4 which is an antiferromagnetic arrangement. The energy is E = −N J S 2 = − 14 N J .