By David Banks
Using the warmth kept within the shallow subsurface for area heating (ground resource warmth) is commonplace in North the US and lots of eu countries, equivalent to Sweden, and is thought of as crucial and trustworthy 'green' house heating expertise. in lots of countries, together with Britain, the expertise is still poorly understood and lower than used. this example is ready to alter, despite the fact that, with the united kingdom marketplace for flooring resource warmth pumps growing to be at over a hundred% every year. This booklet deals functional suggestions and should equip engineers, planners and geologists with the basic abilities to evaluate and enforce this new expertise and to introduce them to the technology in the back of thermogeology.
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Extra resources for An introduction to thermogeology: ground source heating and cooling
5 (Continued) merely utilise the earth’s surface as a huge solar collector and storage. We can also begin to understand why so many of the design criteria (which we will meet in later chapters) boil down to speciﬁc energy extraction rates of the order of 10–20 W m−2 of earth’s surface – this approximates to the amount of useful solar and atmospheric radiation we can ‘harvest’ with a ground source heat scheme (and remember that part of this radiation is reﬂected from the earth’s surface or re-radiated by it).
B) Simplified flow diagram for the district heating in Reykjavik. Both diagrams after Lund (2005) and reproduced by kind permission of Dr John W Lund and the GeoHeat Center, Klamath Falls, Oregon. 12 A hot dry rock geothermal exploitation system. inherent tensile strength and eventually creates a new fracture (or opens existing planes of weakness or joints in the rock). 8 km (corresponding to a temperature of ≈165◦ C) and, following hydrofraccing of the granite, a ﬂow of 25 L s−1 was circulated across the 450 m separation between the downﬂow and return wells.
4 Case study: Gardermoen International Airport. , 1992). Before Oslo’s airport was shifted from Fornebu to Gardermoen in 1998, it was decided that the massive new airport deserved a ground source heating scheme, based on pumped groundwater. During most of the year, water is pumped from nine 45–50 m deep ‘warm’ abstraction wells (spaced at 50 m and each with a yield of up to 70 L s−1 ) and heat is extracted from the groundwater ﬂow (via a heat exchanger) by a heat pump array. The resulting chilled water is used to satisfy any cooling needs in other parts of the airport complex and is then returned to nine similarly spaced ‘cold’ re-injection wells, some 150 m away from the abstraction wells.