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By Gould R.F. (ed.)

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Woodward, D. , Melito, P. , Rodgers, F. , and Ellis, A. (2003) ‘‘Characterization of Waterborne Outbreak-Associated Campylobacter jejuni, Walkerton, Ontario,’’ Emerging Infect. , 9, 10, 1232–1241. Fox, K. , Lytle, D. A. (1996) ‘‘Milwaukee’s Crypto Outbreak: Investigation and Recommendations,’’ Journal AWWA, 88, 9, 87–94. Fuller, G. (1898) Report on the Investigation into Purification of the Water of the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky, D. , New York. Hazen, A. (1909) Clean Water and How to Get It, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

In natural waters, fluoride is present primarily as the F− ion or as a complex with aluminum, beryllium, or ferric iron. In waters with TDS < 1000 mg/L, fluoride is typically <1 mg/L, although ground waters affected by volcanic activity are found with levels higher than 10 mg/L. Nitrogen (N) The most common and important forms of nitrogen in water and their corresponding oxidation state in the water/soil environment are ammonia gas (NH3 , −III), ammonium − − (NH4+ , −III), nitrogen gas (N2 , 0), nitrite ion (NO2 , + III), and nitrate ion (NO3 , + V).

THMs are generally by-products of chlorination of drinking water that contains organic material. Maximum tendency of the organic compounds in a given water supply to form THMs upon disinfection. Suspended solids Synthetic organic compounds (SOCs) Total dissolved solids (TDS) Total organic halogen Trace constituents Transmittance Trihalomethane (THM) Trihalomethane (THM) formation potential Turbidity Reduction in clarity of water caused by the scattering of visible light by particles. Naturally occurring water is a solution containing not only water molecules but also chemical matter such as inorganic ions, dissolved gases, and dissolved organics; solid matter such as colloids, silts, and suspended solids; and biological matter such as bacteria and viruses.

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