By Peter G. Zarrow
Naphtali Lewis and Meyer Reinhold's Roman Civilization is a vintage. initially released via Columbia college Press in 1955, the authors have undertaken one other revision which takes under consideration fresh paintings within the box. those volumes encompass chosen basic files from historic Rome, protecting a number over 1,000 years of Roman tradition, from the root of town to its sacking via the Goths.The decisions disguise a wide spectrum of Roman civilization, together with literature, philosophy, faith, schooling, politics, army affairs, and economics. those English translations of literary, inscriptional, and papyrological assets, lots of that are to be had nowhere else, create a mosaic of the brilliance, the sweetness, and the ability of Rome.
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Extra resources for Anarchism in Chinese Political Culture: Anarchism and Chinese Political Culture (Studies of the East Asian Institute)
13 Several smaller organizations represented musicians whose special needs could not be met by the major groupings. 18 More- Page 12 over, Germany remained one of the few countries that had not yet adopted a copyright period of fifty years after the death of the composer. Efforts during the Weimar era to extend the period of copyright protection brought into focus an inherent financial conflict between composers, or "creative" (schaffende)musicians, and performers, in this context referred to as "reproductive" (nachschaffende) musicians.
Consequently, visual artists often identified more with ideologically oriented organizations than with occupational interest groups. Among the occupational associations, the Reich Association of Visual Artists of Germany (Reichsverband bildender Künstler Deutschlands, or RVbK) stood at the forefront. "25 It sponsored a purchasing cooperative, from which members could buy art supplies at discounted prices; issued publications that kept members informed about meetings, competitions, exhibitions, stipends, and prizes; and lobbied for tax code adjustments that would benefit artists.
In the nineteenth century, artists had begun to recognize the value of occupational associations as vehicles for influencing legislators, state regulators, and employers. 4 The pressures of war, economic difficulties during the immediate postwar period, and the Weimar Republic's legislative promotion of institutionalized collective bargaining all accelerated the process of interest group formation. Economically speaking, the early years of the Weimar Republic did not bode well for the arts. The end of the German monarchies, the difficult transition to a new form of government, and the omnipresent inflation all resulted in diminished professional opportunities for artists.