By Stache H.W. (ed.)
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For a given system θA > θR and θ can usually take any value between these two limits without discernible movement of the wetting line. 3 Thermodynamic Treatment – Young’s Equation  The liquid drop takes the shape that minimizes the free energy of the system. 1. 2) In the above equation θ is the equilibrium contact angle. 5) that is, θ = 180 ° (cos θ = −1). 6) The liquid spreads spontaneously on the solid surface. When the surface of the solid is in equilibrium with the liquid vapor, then one must consider the spreading pressure, πe.
16) The drop volume technique is limited in its application. Under conditions of fast drop formation and larger tip radii, the drop formation shows irregular behavior. 2 Maximum Bubble Pressure Technique This is the most useful technique for measuring adsorption kinetics at short times, particularly if correction for the so-called dead time, τd, is made. The dead time is simply the time required to detach the bubble after it has reached its hemispherical shape. 8, which describes the evolution of a bubble at the tip of a capillary.
8. The advancing and receding angle are clearly shown at the front and the back of the drop on the tilted surface. 8 Representation of a drop proﬁle on a tilted surface. 9 Relationship between depth of immersion and force: (a) no hysteresis; (b) hysteresis present. 37) Hysteresis can be demonstrated by measuring the force on a plate that is continuously immersed in the liquid. When the plate is immersed, the force will decrease due to buoyancy. 9a. 9b. 10 Representation of a drop proﬁle on a rough surface.